Tag : Armin Schwarzbach

Interview with Dr. Armin Schwarzbach

Dr. Armin Schwarzbach talks about the terrible situation for Lyme patients and that they are not getting treated properly. In Germany there is some more openess and doctors are allowed to treat somewhat longer than the guidelines.

He talks about the the bacteria; Borrelia Burgdorferi and its complexity, which again is why this subject is so controversial. Had it been an easy bacteria to diagnose, there would not be so much controvercy. He talks about that the two sides of this controvercy and that they need to come together, as the truth is always in the middle.

Increasingly more ticks studies show that the tick is a dirty needle. There are so many co-infections that can be transfered in one tick bite. This makes the testing system also very complex.

A new study shows evidence of pleomorphic forms of Borrelia Burgdorferi. 


Spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the Northern hemisphere. There is a long-standing debate regarding the role of pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis, while very little is known about the characteristics of these morphological variants.

Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic formation in different culturing conditions at physiological temperature. Interestingly, human serum induced the bacteria to change its morphology to round bodies. In addition, biofilm-like colonies in suspension were found to be part of B. burgdorferi’s normal in vitro growth.

Further studies provided evidence that spherical round bodies had an intact and flexible cell envelope demonstrating that they are not cell wall deficient, or degenerative as previously implied. However, the round bodies displayed lower metabolic activity compared to spirochetes.

Furthermore, our results indicated that the different pleomorphic variants were distinguishable by having unique biochemical signatures. Consequently, pleomorphic B. burgdorferi should be taken into consideration as being clinically relevant and influence the development of novel diagnostics and treatment protocols.

Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms.
Meriläinen L, Herranen A, Schwarzbach A, Gilbert L.
Microbiology. pii: mic.0.000027. Online before print, 2015 Jan 6.


Norvect Conference Program

Program Monday May 26th 2014

7.45 am – 9.00 am


9.00 am – 9.10 am

Welcome by NorVect

Trine Skei Grande (Liberal Party, Venstre) gives opening speech

9.10 am – 10.10 am

Joseph J. Burrascano Jr. MD
Lyme Borreliosis – History, Clinical Presentations, Testing and Diagnosis (incl. 5-10 minutes Q&A)

10.10 am – 11.05 am

Jyotsna Shah, Ph.D, CCLD, MBA
What Have We Learnt About Diagnosis of Lyme and Other Tick-borne Diseases in The Last 20 Years? (incl. 5-10 minutes Q&A)

11.05 am– 11.25 am


11.25 am– 12.35am

Richard I. Horowitz, MD
Tick-borne Co-infections: Presentation, Diagnosis and Treatment. (incl. 5-10 minutes Q&A)

12.35 pm– 1.35 pm

Lunch – networking, knowledge sharing

1.35 pm – 2.35 pm

Christian Perrone, PhD, MD
The gap between current diagnostic tests for Lyme disease and associated diseases and the diversity of pathogens isolated in the world.(incl. 5- 10 minutes Q&A)

2.35 pm – 3.05 pm

Carl Morten Motzfeldt Laane, PhD
Easy Detection of Bacteria and Parasites in Infected Human Blood by Microscopy. Some Simple, Low-cost Methods. (incl. 5 minutes Q&A)

3.05 pm – 2.30 pm

Bela Bózsik, MD
DualDur®reagent & method in diagnosis & pathogenesis for TBD – 30 years practice (incl. 5 minutes Q&A)

3.25 pm – 3.45 pm


3.45 pm – 4.25 pm

Alan MacDonald, MD
Borrelia -diverse Morphologies in culture and in Human Infections (incl 10 minutes Q&A)

4.25 pm– 4.45 pm

Armin Schwarzbach, Ph.D, MD
Borrelia-Elispot: A Game-Changer in diagnostics?

4.45 pm– 5.30 pm

Dialogue/ Panel discussions

Program Tuesday May 27th 2014

07.30 – 08.30 am


08.30 – 09.30 am

Joseph J. Burrascano Jr. MD
Lyme Borreliosis: Treatment and Case Histories (incl.10 minutes Q&A)

09.30 – 11.15 am

Richard I. Horowitz, MD
Why Can´t I Get Better? Using the Lyme-MSIDS Map in Chronic Illness. (incl. 10-15 minutes Q&A)

11.15 – 11.30 am


11.30 am – 12.30 pm

Dr. Edward B. Breitschwerdt, DVM
Bartonellosis: A One Health Approach to An Emerging Infectious Disease (incl. 10 minutes Q&A)

12.30 pm – 1.30 pm

Lunch – networking, knowledge sharing

1.30 pm – 1.55 pm

Åshild Andreassen, Ph.D
ScandTick – Regional cooperation against tick-borne diseases. (incl. 5 minutes Q&A)

1.55 pm – 2.45 pm

Eva Sapi, Ph.D
Biofilms and antibiotic resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi (incl. 5-10 minutes Q&A)

2.45 pm – 3.25 pm

Alan MacDonald, MD
Human Borrelia Deaths, Autospy studies, and Chronic Morbidities (incl. 10 minutes Q&A).

3.25 pm– 3.40 pm


3.40 pm – 4.30 pm

Judith Miklossy, Ph.D, MD, DSc
Chronic Lyme disease and Lyme dementia (incl. 5-10 minutes Q&A)

4.30 pm – 4.50 pm

Randi Eikeland, Ph.D, MD
European Neuroborreliosis Long-term Follow-up

4.50 pm – 5.30 pm

Dialogue/ Panel discussion